Ecology, Capitalism, and the Socialization of Nature

Ecology, Capitalism, and the Socialization of Nature: An Interview with John Bellamy Foster” [PDF], Monthly Review vol. 56, no. 6 (November 2004), pp. 1-12.

Originally published on-line in Aurora (Athabasca University), Interview Collection at


  • Chinese translation by Liu Rensheng, Contemporary World and Socialism (China), no. 6, 2005.
  • Indonesian translation in Ecology, Capitalism and the Socialization of Nature (Jakarta: Indonesian Forum for Environment (WALHI): Institute for Media Liberation and Social Sciences, 2004).

DENNIS SORON: Many environmentalists came away from the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 with a great deal of optimism, believing that the cause of global environmental reform had finally been seriously placed on the political agenda. Today, with environmental conditions continuing to worsen and governments refusing to take effective action, it seems that little of this optimism remains. Why did the hopes spawned at Rio turn out to be so misplaced?

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